Professional Counseling for Individuals, Couples & Adolescents

I work from an empowerment model. My goal is to teach clients new ways of perceiving their problem, healthy coping behaviors for responding to their problem, and healthy attitudes & communication skills for working with their families, partners, or work environment so they can make changes in their own life.

Mental Health Dictionary

This dictionary provides meanings to terms often used by Counselors, Social Workers, Psychologists and Psychiatrists.



Acrophobia -The fear of high places or of being in the air. Adlerian Therapy (Individual Psychology) - Based on the belief that all human behavior has a purpose and is goal-oriented, that we strive for social connectedness, and that we suffer our emotional difficulties due to feelings of inferiority and not having a sense of community. Founder: Alfred Adler (1870-1937). True change and growth results from identifying, exploring, and changing mistaken goals and beliefs. Therapy is seen as a re-education process leading to greater social participation and fewer feelings of inferiority. Affect - Is an individual's expression of mood, temperament, and feelings. Anxiety - A feeling of uneasiness, tension, and sense of imminent danger. When such a feeling occurs within a person with no specific cause in the environment, it is known as free-floating anxiety. When it recurs frequently and interferes with effective living or a sense of well-being or is otherwise maladaptive, it is known as an Anxiety Disorder. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Anxiety Disorder - A chronic or recurring state of tension, worry, fear, and uneasiness arising from unknown or unrecognized perceptions of danger or conflict. Types of Anxiety Disorders include, Acute Stress Disorder, Agoraphobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Social Phobia, and Specific Phobia. Art Therapy - Use of art and creativity as a way to get at deeper feelings and greater self-knowledge. Based on the belief that accessing the more creative or right brain part of us is helpful in identifying what is going on emotionally and can be a part of the healing process. Avoidant Personality Disorder - Is one in which the individual is hypersensitive to potential rejection, has low self-esteem, is socially withdrawn, and is generally unwilling to enter social relationships unless there is an assurance of uncritical acceptance. For further information see Personality Disorders.

Behavioral Therapy - Founded on the belief that true change and movement towards goals is accomplished through action and that disorders are learned ways of behaving that are maladaptive. If we can learn to change our behavior, then our thoughts, feelings, and attitudes will also change. Common behavioral techniques include systematic desensitization (gradual exposure to an anxiety-provoking situation paired with relaxation), using reinforcements for desired behaviors, and aversion therapy to extinguish unwanted behaviors. Biofeedback Therapy - Use of electronic systems to monitor internal processes such as heart rate, brain waves, or perspiration to help an individual become more aware of their physiological responses and learn to have more control over them. Borderline Intellectual Functioning - Intelligence abilities that measure on intelligence quotient (IQ) tests at the 71 to 84 range (just below a dull-normal and just above the highest level of Mental Retardation)(The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)

Childhood Disorders - These are disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, however, some of these disorders may not be present for clinical attention until adulthood. Childhood Disorders include Attention-Deficit and Disruptive wDisorders, Communication Disorders, Elimination Disorders, Feeding and Eating, Disorders, Learning Disorders, Mental Retardation, Motor Skills Disorders, Pervasive Development Disorders, Tic Disorders and Other Childhood Disorders. Christian/Bible-Based Therapy - Counseling is founded on what is written in the Bible. Based on the belief that Scripture is the final authority for what kinds of decisions an individual should make or how they should live their life. Client-Centered Therapy - Individuals are believed to be in the best position to resolve their issues if the therapist can establish a warm, accepting, and safe environment in which the individual feels free to talk about his/her issues and can gain insight into them. This type of therapy is non-directive because the therapist typically does not give advice or make interpretations. Founder: Carl Rogers (1902-19987) who believed that individuals are trustworthy and have a great potential for self-awareness and self-directed growth given a nurturing environment. The function of the therapist is to be genuine, accepting, and empathetic. Techniques are seen as less important. Clinical Social Worker - An individual who specializes in a form of direct social work practice with individuals, couples, families, groups, and the community. The clinician uses the professional application of social work theory and methods to the treatment and prevention of psychosocial dysfunction, disability, or impairment, including emotional and mental disorders. The clinician's social work practice includes emphasis on the person-in environment perspective. Coach - A personal coach focuses on bridging the gap between your current reality and your true priorities or goals. Unlike therapy, coaching is an action-oriented process that addresses your future, rather than your past. A good coach will (1) ask questions that uncover your own inner wisdom, (2) provide advice and information to help you avoid common pitfalls, and (3) provide the structure and focus necessary to accomplish your goals. A personal coach is your "cheerleader" supporting you in the process of reaching your goals. Codependence - A relationship between two or more individuals who rely on each other to meet and provide for reciprocal needs, particularly unhealthy emotional ones. Cognition - The mental process of recognizing, understanding, remembering, and evaluating relevant information. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - Seeks to predict, regulate and control the individual's problematic behavior by also understanding the importance of the inner mental and emotional world of individuals. To change the troubling feelings to more positive ones, it is necessary to help individuals identify their thoughts, analyze them with respect to their rationality and challenge those that are ill-formed and exaggerated. The therapist helps the individual by teaching them to view his/her thinking as a type of behavior that he/she can bring under conscious control with positive results. The therapist tends to be fairly directive and focused on the individuals' presenting problem. Cognitive Disorders - The inability to recognize, understand, remember, or evaluate relevant information necessary to perform the activities of daily living. Cognitive Disorders include Amnestic Disorder, Delirium, and Dementia. Cognitive Dissonance - The mental state in which a person experiences two or more incompatible beliefs or cognitions simultaneously. In the healthy individual, this state usually leads to psychological discomfort that remains until the person acts to clarify the discrepancy. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Cognitive Therapy - Therapy is based on the belief that faulty thinking patterns and belief systems cause psychological problems and that changing our thoughts improves our mental and emotional health and results in changes in behavior. Counselor - Anyone who provides counseling. This term is often applied to highly trained mental health, education, or legal professionals, but it is also used for volunteers with minimal training and for paid workers who provide guidance and structure in group settings. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Countertransference - A set of conscious or unconscious emotional reactions to a client experienced by the therapist or other mental health professional, usually in a clinical setting. According to psychodynamic theory, these feelings originate in the therapist's own developmental conflicts and are projected onto the client. Countertransference is identical to transference except that it applies to the feelings, wishes, and defensive operations of the therapist toward the client. Like transference, it must be constantly monitored and understood. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Crisis - An internal experience of emotional change and distress, which an individual is unable to handle. A crisis is considered to be precipitated by a perceived life problem or to pose an obstacle to an important goal resulting in internal discord due to the individual's inability to cope. The outcome of the crisis can be positive if the individual can learn new coping skills to help them through the situation.


Delusions - Is an inaccurate but strongly held belief retained by an individual despite evidence to the contrary or despite cultural norms that do not support such beliefs. Delusions are often a characteristic of psychosis or paranoid ideation. Dependent Personality Disorder - Is one in which the individual is generally passive in most relationships, allows others to assume responsibilities, lacks self-confidence, feels helpless, and tends to tolerate abusiveness from others. For further information see Personality Disorders. Depression - An emotional reaction frequently characterized by sadness, discouragement, despair, pessimism about the future, reduced activity and productivity, sleep disturbance or excessive fatigue, and feelings of inadequacy, self-effacement, and hopelessness. In some individuals, such traits may be mild, intermittent, and undetectable by observers, but in others they may be constant and intense. In its more severe forms, it may be considered a Mood Disorder (e.g. Bipolar Disorder, Cyclothymic Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder). (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Dissociative Disorders - A type of mental disorder characterized by a sudden, temporary change in the normally integrative functions of consciousness, identity, and memory. Specific forms of the Dissociative Disorders include Depersonalization Disorder, Dissociative Amnesia, Dissociative Fugue, Dissociative Identity Disorder and Depersonalization Disorder. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Dream Analysis - Process of determining the meanings of dreams through symbols, myths, free association, and memories. There are a variety of philosophies and approaches for analyzing dreams including Adlerian (dreams are projections of an individual's current concerns), Gestalt (every individual and object in a dream represents an aspect of the dreamer), and psychoanalytic (dreams are a key tow hat is happening in an individual's unconscious). Dysthymic Disorder - A mood disorder characterized by sadness, pessimism, dyssomnia (sleep disorder), poor appetite or overeating, irritability (especially in children), fatigue, low self-esteem, and indecisiveness, symptoms that occur most of each day, most days, for at least two years. This disorder differs from Major Depressive Disorder in that its symptoms are usually less severe but exist almost continuously for years. For more specific information see Mood Disorders.


Eating Disorders - Maladaptive or unhealthy patterns of eating and ingestion. There are two major types of Eating Disorders - (1) Anorexia Nervosa and (2) Bulimia Nervosa. Eating Disorders first diagnosed during infancy or early childhood include Pica and Rumination Disorder. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Eclectic Therapy - There are several schools of psychotherapy each with its own organizing philosophy, procedures, techniques, and methods. Some therapists are theoretically "pure" in that they do all of their clinical practice within the bounds of the teachings of one particular school of therapy. Other therapists (the majority) mix and match techniques, methods and assumptions drawn from the different schools of psychotherapy to create an eclectic way of doing therapy. Eclecticism can be good because each of the therapies have their strengths and weaknesses and with proper "blending" can provide an effective therapeutic tool to help individuals. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) of Electroschock Therapy (EST) - Treatments administered by physicians, primarily neurologists and psychiatrists, in which convulsions are induced in individuals by applying small amounts of electrical currents to the brain. Its purpose is to treat individuals who suffer certain types of mental disorders (e.g., severe depression, mood disorder, psychosis), when medications and other treatments have not been responsive to address the symptoms of the mental illness. EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy) - Technique of restructuring thought patterns and associations related to traumatic events and memories and other sources of emotional distress. Method was developed by Francine Shapiro when she discovered that rapid-eye movements combined with focusing on disturbing thoughts and memories produced a calming effect. Empowerment - The process of helping individuals, families, groups, and communities increase their personal, interpersonal, socioeconomic, and political strength and develop influence toward improving their circumstances. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Enmeshment - When two or more individuals weave their lives and identities around one another so tightly that it is difficult for any one of them to function independently. Detachment, on the other hand, is when individuals are so independent in their functioning that it is difficult to figure out how they are related to one another. Healthy relationships are thought to have a balance between enmeshment and detachment. Existential Therapy - A philosophy of life, rather than a specific therapy, which focuses on free will, responsibility for choices, and search for meaning and purpose through suffering, love, and work. Individuals are seen as constantly changing and becoming their true selves. Searching within and finding one's own answers is encouraged. Emphasis is on the present and future, not the past.


Factitious Disorder - Behavior that appears to be abnormal or a symptom of mental illness but is probably under the subject's voluntary control. It is similar to malingering, except that in Factitious Disorder there is no apparent material or tangible benefit to be gained from the playing the "sick" role; the subject's apparent intention is to elicit attention, caring and concern from significant others or professionals. For further information see Factitious Disorder. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Family Systems Therapy - Therapy which looks at the entire family as a complex system having its own language, roles, rules, beliefs, needs, and patterns. Each family member plays a part in the system and family systems therapy helps an individual discover how their family operated, their role in the system, and how it affects them in their current family and in relationships outside the family. Feminist Therapy - A therapy which focuses on empowering women and helping women discover how to break free from some of the traditional molds that they may feel are blocking their growth and development. Feminist therapy tends to be more focused on strengthening women in areas such as communication, assertiveness, self-esteem, and relationships. Flashback - A mental sensation of a sudden recurrence of a previous experience or perception. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Global Village - The interconnectedness of all the world's people because of technological advances in communication (e.g. internet), travel, cultural exchanges, and economic integration. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Gestalt Therapy - Experiential therapy emphasizing what is happening in the here and now to help individuals become more self-aware and learn responsibility for and integration of thoughts, feelings, and actions. A goal is to develop more internal vs. external support. Techniques include confrontation, role-playing, and the empty-chair or dialogue between two parts of a personality. Founder: Frederick S. (fritz) Perls (1893 - 1970) who believed that individuals must find their own way in life and accept responsibility for who they are to reach maturity. Gottman Method Couples Therapy - Combines John Gottman’s 35 years of research on couples’ relationships with Julie Schwartz Gottman’s more than 35 years of clinical practice.  Through research-based interventions and exercises, Gottman Method Couples Therapists help couples break through barriers to achieve greater understanding, connection and intimacy in their relationships.  Gottman Method Couples Therapy is a structured, goal-oriented, scientifically-based therapy.  Intervention strategies are based upon empirical data from Dr. Gottman’s three decades of research with 3,000 couples.  This research shows us what actually works to help couples achieve a long-term healthy relationship.  Gottman Method Couples Therapy was developed out of this research to help you and your spouse or partner:

  • Increase respect, affection, and closeness
  • Break through and resolve conflict when you feel stuck
  • Generate greater understanding between you and your partner

  • Keep conflict discussions calm
  • Maintain improvements in your relationship

The therapy usually consists of two or three sessions of assessment and subsequent hourly therapy sessions, typically on a weekly basis.  Gottman therapy helps couples develop and strengthen the qualities of positive, healthy relationships that Dr. Gottman discovered in his 35 years of research with couples. Guarded - Is when an individual will hold within themselves information that may be requested of another because they do not trust that individual ... in essence, what the individual believes they are doing is protecting themselves from harm.


Hallucination - An imagined perception of some object or phenomenon that is not really present. Often a symptom of a psychosis, it may involve hearing nonexistent voices (auditory hallucination), seeing objects that are not there (visual hallucination), smelling (olfactory hallucination), tasting (gustatory hallucination), and touching (haptic hallucination). (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Holistic - Oriented toward the understanding and treatment of the whole person or phenomenon. In this view, an individual is seen as being more than the sum of separate parts, and problems are seen in a broader context rather than as specific symptoms. One who maintains a holistic philosophy seeks to integrate all the social, cultural, psychological, and physical influences of an individual. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Impulse Control Disorders - A diagnostic group of mental disorders characterized by the repeated inability to resist some temptation that is harmful to one's self or others. In most cases, the individual becomes increasingly tense before succumbing to the temptation, feels pleasure and emotional release on completing the act, and then experiences regret after the act is over. Impulse Control Disorders include Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Kleptomania, Pathological Gambling, Pyromania and Trichotillomania. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Independent - Not relying on others for support, care, or funds; self-supporting. Insight - Self-understanding and awareness of one's feelings, motivations, and problems. Interdependence - The sharing of responsibilities and benefits that are required for survival or well-being.


Jealousy - Fearful, apprehensive, resentful, or envious of being displaced, losing affection or position. Jungian Therapy (Analytical Psychology) - The focus of therapy is to help individuals access more of their inner world (unconscious) and develop greater self-realization and individuation. Carl G. Jung's theory is psychoanalytic, but differs from traditional Freudian Theory in that Jung added the concepts of individuation (human potential), which includes transcendence and spirituality. Individuals are seen in a positive light and therapy considers the "soul" which seeks to be nurtured by something larger than the self.


Kinship - A group of people bound by the same blood-line (genetic inheritance). Use of the term usually implies other characteristics shared by the family, such as similar behaviors, values, and talents. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Life Skills - The ability to carry out activities of daily living, such as home management and upkeep, financial planning, meal planning and preparation, personal hygiene/appearance and personal care (e.g., sleep, balanced eating, exercise, pleasure), finding and maintaining appropriate educational and vocational opportunities, using social services, when needed to obtain needed assistance, accessing appropriate transportation and maintaining positive social interactions (e.g., knowing how to greet people, forming and maintaining friendships).


Mental Health - The state of emotional well-being, freedom from conflicts, and the ability to make and carry out decisions and cope with environmental stressors and internal pressures. Mental Illness - Impaired psychosocial or cognitive functioning due to disturbances in the individual's biological, chemical, physiological, genetic, psychological, or social processes. Mental illness is extremely variable in duration, severity, and prognosis, depending on the type of disorder. Milieu Therapy - A form of treatment and rehabilitation for individuals with social and mental disorders who usually live in institutional settings. Treatment is not restricted to individual hours with a professional therapist but also occurs in the total environment of this closed setting, which is also referred to as the "therapeutic community." Individuals being treated attend group sessions for everyone in the facility, elect their own leaders, and provide one another with social and emotional support throughout the day. The entire environment is considered vital to the treatment process. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Mood Disorders - A group of serious mental disorders involving affective lability (depression or persistently elevated moods). The diagnosable Mood Disorders include Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder, Cyclothymic Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Needs - All individuals have the same needs, including physical, psychological, economic, cultural, and social requirements for survival, well-being, and fulfillment.


Objects - Any part of the environment of which the individual is aware - a material thing, a person, or an abstraction. (Dictionary of Psychology by J.P. Chaplin, Ph.D., 1985, Laurel Books) Object Relations Theory - A psychoanalytic concept about an individual's relationship with others based on early parent-child interactions and internalized self-images that are focused on these interactions. (The Social work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW, Press. Online Support Group - A form of computer-mediated social interaction using the Internet to enable participants to receive and provide information between one another, as well as advice, resources, and encouragement. Using e-mail, chat rooms, and especially listservs, the participants have almost immediate access to one another and can communicate anonymously on specific issues of mutual concern or general topics of common interest. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Paranoid Ideations - An unfound suspicion that one is under surveillance or is being followed, talked about, or persecuted. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Personality Disorders - Patterns of relating to and understanding others that are so maladaptive, inflexible, and deeply ingrained that they produce significant social impairment. Personality Disorders are usually recognizable in one's adolescence. There are 11 major types of Personality Disorders including (1) Antisocial Personality Disorder, (2) Avoidant Personality Disorder, (3) Borderline Personality Disorder, (4) Histrionic, (5) Personality Disorder, (6) Narcissistic Personality Disorder, (7) Obsessive-Compulsive, (8) Personality Disorder, (9) Paranoid Personality Disorder, (10) Schizoid Personality Disorder and (11) Schizotypal Personality Disorder. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Pleasure Principle - A principle in Freudian theory stating that the individual begins life seeking only gratification and pleasure and the avoidance of pain and discomfort. The developing child eventually learns that immediate gratification sometimes has to be subordinated, so the reality principle starts to emerge. Thereafter the person faces a lifelong conflict between the pleasure and reality principles. The healthy ego tries to adhere to the reality principle while allowing some room for the pleasure principle. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Psychiatrist - A physician who specializes in the treatment of mental disorders. The psychiatrist makes specific diagnoses of the mental disorder and prescribes, supervises, or directly provides the necessary treatment, which may include psychotherapy, psychotropic drugs, and hospitalization with Milieu Therapy. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Psychoanalytic Therapy - Based on the belief that true change and growth comes from an individual becoming more self-aware by bringing unconscious thoughts, motivation, feelings, and experiences into the conscious so that behavior is based more on reality than instinct. Founder: Sigmund Freud (1856)1939). Key concepts are the individual's behavior is determined by unconscious motivation, irrational forces, instinctual drives, and pscyhosexual events occurring during the first six years of life. Classical psychoanalysis is an intensive and long-term process with a focus on transference (transferring feelings about and reactions to past significant others onto the therapist) and uncovering unconscious material. Psychologist - A professional who studies behavior and mental processes and may apply that knowledge to the evaluation and treatment of a mental disorder. Psychologists have many specialties, including experimental, educational, counseling, industrial, and clinical orientations. Psychotic Disorders - A group of serious and frequently incapacitating mental disorders that may be of organic or psychological origin. These disorders are characterized by some or all of the following symptoms: impaired thinking and reasoning ability, perceptual distortions, inappropriate emotional responses, inappropriate affect, regressive behavior, reduced impulse control, impaired reality testing, ideas of reference, hallucinations, and delusions. Psychotic Disorders include Brief Psychotic Disorder, Delusional Disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder and Shared Psychotic Disorder. Psychotic Drugs - Drugs used by psychiatrists and other physicians to help their patients achieve psychological or emotional changes. These drugs include antidepressant medications (e.g., Prozac, Elavil, Norpramin, Pertofrane, Sinequan, Aventl, Vivictil), antianxiety medications (e.g., Valium, Librium, Tranxene, Ativan, Serax, and various barbituates), antipsychotic medication (e.g., Thorazine, Haldol, Compazine, Selazine, Navane, Mellaril, Serentil, Trilafon,, Prolixin),and antimanic medications (e.g., lithium carbonate--that is, Eskalith, Lithane, or Lithonate). (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Psychosis - A severe mental disorder characterized by disorganization of the thought processes, disturbances in emotionality, disorientation as to time, space, and person, and, in some cases, hallucinations and delusions. (Source: Dictionary of Psychology by J. P. Chaplin, Ph.D., 1985, Laurel Books)


Quick Relaxation Techniques - Simple self-administered methods for achieving a state of greater calm and reduced stress. Four techniques are (1) the countdown (sitting quietly, eyes closed, counting numbers or imaginary objects); (2) imagery (imagining beautiful scenes or pleasurable remembrances); (3) the turtle (the yoga-inspired practice of sitting straight, letting the chin fall to the chest and exhaling, inhaling while moving the head back as though trying to touch the shoulders, then pulling shoulders up as though trying to touch the ears); and (4) scanning (while sitting during normal daily activities, inhaling slowly while thinking about each muscle group in the body and purposefully relaxing all the muscles that are tense). (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Reality Therapy - A form of psychosocial and behavioral interventions, developed by William Glasser, in which the individual is helped to develop a success identity based on love and worth. Reality therapists focus on the individual's behavior rather than feelings and on the present and future rather than the past. They encourage responsible behavior and the working out of alternative solutions to problems. They do not accept individual's excuses, rarely ask "why," and place little emphasis on taking case histories. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Relationship Enrichment - Programs to help people achieve better communications and more meaningful relationships with one another. Growing out of the marriage enrichment programs, the programs have been used primarily for well-functioning couples, adult siblings, dating couples, and work colleagues. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) RET (Rational Emotive Therapy) - Based on the belief that our emotions result from our beliefs, interpretations, and reactions to life events. A type of cognitive therapy based more on thinking and doing than with the expressions of feelings. Founder: Albert Ellis (1913-) is known as the father of RET and the grandfather of cognitive-behavioral therapy.


Selfobject - The development of self - objects which we experience as part of our self; the expected control over them is, therefore, closure to the concept of the control which a grown-up expects to have over his own body and mind than to the concept of the control which he expects to have over others. Heinz Kohut (1923-1981) identified two self objects, including (1) Mirroring Selfobject "those who respond to and confirm the children's innate sense of vigour [physical or mental strength or energy], greatness and perfection." (2) The idealized parent emago "those to whom the child can look up and with whom he can merge as an image of calmness, infallibility [incapable of failing], and omnipotence [having unlimited power or authority]." Kohut felt there were three primary needs required for self to thrive: the need to be "mirrored," the need to idealize, and the need to be like others - when these needs are not met for the child, for whatever reason, a self disorder occurs. ( Self-Psychology Therapy - Based on the Freudian and Jungian Therapies. Heinz Kohut, its founder, postulated that narcissism and grandiosity in the infant is healthily managed by self-object experiences, which can be idealizing, mirroring, or twinning experiences. He felt that these self-object experiences continue throughout development and life. The essence of therapy arises from empathetic understanding within the therapeutic frame and that healing results from temporary disruptions in this empathetic stance in the therapists. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders - These disorders are identified as Gender Identity Disorders; Paraphilias (exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, transvestic fetishism and voyeurism); and Sexual Dysfunctions (sexual desire disorders, sexual arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders and sexual pain disorders). For further information see Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders. Sleep Disorders - A group of disorders involving chronic and persistent disturbances in sleep patterns, including abnormalities in the amount, quality or timing of sleep, abnormal behavioral or physiological events in association with sleep, or sleep disturbance patterns resulting from a variety of specified conditions. Among Sleep Disorders are primary sleep disorders (dyssomnia and parasomnia), sleep disorders resulting from other mental disorders (insomnia and hypersomnia), and sleep disorders related to another mental disorder or substance abuse. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Solution-Focused Therapy - Begins from the observation that most psychological problems are present only intermittently. Individuals with panic disorder obviously do not spend every minute of every day in a panic; even depression fluctuates in severity. Solution-Focused Therapy tries to help the individual notice when symptoms are diminished or absent and use this knowledge as a foundation for recovery. If an individual insists that the symptoms are constant and unrelieved, the therapist works with him/her to find exceptions and makes the exceptions more frequent, predictable, and controllable. In other works, therapy builds on working solutions already available to the individual. Somotoform Disorders - Mental disorders that have the appearance of physical illness but, lacking any known organic basis, are generally thought to be psychogenic. The specific Somotoform Disorders include Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Conversion Disorder, Hypochondrasis, Pain Disorder. Somatization Disorder and Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder. When the individual experiences only a few of these symptoms of a shorter duration, the diagnosis is "undifferentiated somatoform disorder." (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Spirituality - Devotion to the immaterial part of humanity and nature rather than worldly things such as possessions; an orientation to an individual's religious, moral, or emotional nature. Substance-Related Disorders - A classification of disorders related to the taking of a drug of abuse, alcohol, medication, or toxin resulting in undesirable symptoms and side effects. In the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV classification, the substances used or induced are alcohol, amphetamine, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogen, inhalant, nicotine, opium, phencyclidine, sedatives, polysubstances, and other or unknown substances. Disorders that result from this include substance-induced psychotic disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, and sleep disorders. For further information see Substance-Related Disorders. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


TA Therapy (Transactional Analysis) - Interactions with others and communication styles are seen as coming from three states: the parent, adult, and child and the different types of ways those three parts of our personality communicate within ourselves and with others. Transference - A concept, originating in psychoanalytic theory, that refers to emotional reactions that are assigned to current relationships but originated in earlier, often unresolved and unconscious experiences. For example, a client who as a child felt extremely hostile to a parent and never resolved the feeling develops extremely hostile feelings toward the therapist even though no overt reason exists for such feelings. Transference is used by pscyhodynamically oriented therapists and other therapists as a tool for understanding and working through past conflicts. The transfer of affectionate feelings to the therapist is known as positive transference and that of hostile feelings as negative transference. See also countertransference. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press) Twelve-Step Programs - The central activity of many self-help organizations, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Gamblers Anonymous (GA), and Batterers Anonymous (BA), that asks members to proceed through 12 incremental activities. Although each organization modifies the steps slightly to suit its needs the basic activities include (1) acknowledge powerlessness with the situation/problem; (2) recognize the need for help from a Higher Power; (3) decide to turn one's life over to their Higher Power; (4) make a searching self-inventory; (5) admit to Higher Power, oneself, and one other person the exact nature of wrongs done; (6) be ready to have High Power remove character defects; (7) humbly ask Higher Power to remove short-comings; (8) list all people harmed and be willing to make amends; (9) make direct amends whenever possible; (10) continue to make a personal inventory and admit one's wrong doings; (11) seek improvements through prayer and meditation in contact with Higher Power; and (12) carry this message to others with the same situation/problem.


Unipolar Depression - A rarely used term referring to a Mood Disorder in which only one side of the emotional continuum is present, which is depression.


Values - The customs, beliefs, standards of conduct, and principles considered desirable by a culture, a group of people, or an individual. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Willfulness - Determination, stubbornness, or purposeful intention. This quality is seen as having good and bad characteristics depending on its use. It exists in various degrees in leaders of social causes, activists, rebellious adolescents, individuals experiencing obsessive-compulsive behaviors, individuals with personality disorders, and other people said to have "strong personalities."


Xenophobia - Persistent, intense, and unreasonable fear of strangers or foreign people. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Yuppies - Slang term for young urban professionals. The expression has given rise to similar terms such as "buppies" (black urban professionals), "suppose" (senior citizens), "guppies" (gay men and lesbians), "luppies" (Latinos), and "puppies" (poor urban professionals). (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)


Zoophobia - Pathological fear of animals. (The Social Work Dictionary by Robert L. Barker, 1999, NASW Press)